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Public International Law  Critical Approaches 
Third World Approaches to International Law 

 Peace Processes  Mindanao

Human Rights    Indigenous Peoples' Rights


Free, Prior, and Informed Consent in the Philippines: A Fourth World Critique

in Markus Krajewski and Isabel Feichtner (eds), Human Rights in the Extractive Industries: Transparency, Participation, Resistance (Springer Books 2019)

This chapter explores the limits of FPIC in the Philippines from a Fourth World

perspective to international law. I argue that due to the state-centrism of international and domestic law, state prerogatives trump Indigenous peoples’ rights over natural resources. 

Consequently, FPIC remains a regime of unfulfilled promises in a framework based on a Western conception of state sovereignty and characterized by the denial of the (pre-)existence

and validity of indigenous polities and their sovereignty. The way forward, is to assert Indigenous peoples’ participation in international law-making,based on their right to self-determination and historical sovereignty, and to empower them to influence the content of international law norms that affect them—not just those that exist specifically for the protection of Indigenous


UK Stabilisation Unit

A comprehensive examination of the Philippine peace process with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, highlighting key interventions that contributed to its progress, as well as an analysis of the limits of interventions, considering the country's political culture. 

From the Executive Summary: 

The Bangsamoro rebellion was led by the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) against the Philippine state in the early 1970s. The MNLF called for independence of the Bangsamoro of Mindanao, a southern Philippine island. The rebellion was fuelled by deep Moro anger and resentment at the ‘annexation’ of Mindanao to the Philippine post-colonial state; decades of central government neglect and underdevelopment; systemic dispossession of land through unjust land laws; the arrival of big businesses that exploited local natural resources with minimal benefit to local communities; and unresolved violent attacks against Moro communities by Christian vigilante groups and the Philippine military...

The Lumads in the Bangsamoro Peace Process

Sui Generis (forthcoming)

An examination of the seemingly conflicting claims fo the Lumads and the Bangsamoro in the Philippine peace process with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front

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